Herbert Gustave Schmalz (aka Herbert Gustave Carmichael) (British painter) 1856 - 1935 Herbert Gustave Schmalz is counted among the Pre-Raphaelites. Schmalz was born in England as the son of a German father and an English mother (who was the daughter of the marine painter John Wilson Carmichael). He received conventional education in painting, first at the South Kensington Art School and later at the Royal Academy of Arts, where he studied with Frank Dicksee, Stanhope Forbes and Arthur Hacker. He perfected his studies in Antwerp at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. He married Edith Dene, the sister of Leighton's well-known model Dorothy Dene. After his return to Londen he made himself a name as a history painter, in a style influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and orientalism. In 1884 he successfully exhibited his painting Too Late at the Royal Academy. After a voyage to Jerusalem in 1890 he made a series of paintings with New Testament topics, with Return from Calvary (1891) one of the best known. After 1895 Schmalz increasingly painted portraits. In 1900 he held a big solo exhibition named "A Dream of Fair Women" in the Fine Art Society in Bond Street. Schmalz was friends with William Holman Hunt, Val Prinsep and Frederic Leighton. In 1918, after Germany was defeated in World War One he changed his surname to Carmichael.